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Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate

Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate

Hendrik Lorentz shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics for the Zeeman effect. He derived the Lorentz transformation and force, and developed the Lorentz oscillator model.

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1853-07-18

Hendrik Lorentz Born

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was born on July 18, 1853 in Arnhem, Netherlands. He is best known for his work on electromagnetic radiation and the FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction.

1871

Obtained BSc in mathematics and physics

In 1871, Hendrik Lorentz obtained a Bachelor of Science degree in mathematics and physics from Leiden University in the Netherlands.

1872

Hendrik Lorentz taught night school

In 1872, Hendrik Lorentz took on the role of teaching at a night school while pursuing his research interests. This experience contributed to his growth as a scholar and educator.

1873

Hendrik Lorentz obtained his bachelor's degree

One year after attending Leiden University, Hendrik Lorentz obtained his bachelor's degree. This academic accomplishment laid the foundation for his future academic and scientific pursuits.

1875

Obtained Ph.D

In 1875, Hendrik Lorentz obtained his Ph.D from Leiden University in the Netherlands.

1877-11-17

Appointment to Chair in Theoretical Physics at University of Leiden

At the age of 24, Lorentz was appointed to the newly established chair in theoretical physics at the University of Leiden in 1877.

1878-01-25

Hendrik Lorentz appointed to chair in theoretical physics at University of Leiden

In 1878, at the age of 24, Hendrik Lorentz was appointed to the newly established chair in theoretical physics at the University of Leiden. He delivered his inaugural lecture on 'De moleculaire theoriën in de natuurkunde' (The molecular theories in physics) on January 25, 1878.

1881

Hendrik Lorentz marries Aletta Catharina Kaiser

In 1881, Hendrik Lorentz married Aletta Catharina Kaiser, who was the niece of Frederik Kaiser. Aletta was the daughter of Johann Wilhelm Kaiser, a prominent figure in the art and design world of Amsterdam.

1884

Study on the effect of magnetization on the polarization of reflected light

In 1884, Lorentz began studying how magnetization impacts the polarization of reflected light.

1887

Michaelson and Morley Experiment

In 1887, Michaelson and Morley conducted an experiment that challenged Lorentz's theory of an ether governing the actions of electrons. This experiment, along with further research, disproved the existence of the ether.

1892

Lorentz Contraction Theory

In 1892, Hendrik Lorentz proposed the theory of moving bodies contracting in the direction of motion to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment while retaining the concept of the ether.

1895

Introduction of Local Time by Lorentz

In 1895, Hendrik Lorentz introduced the concept of local time as a solution to the negative results of the Michelson-Morley experiment. He proposed that different locations experience time at different rates.

1896

Zeeman Effect Theoretical Interpretation

When Pieter Zeeman discovered the Zeeman effect in 1896, Lorentz provided its theoretical interpretation, leading to their joint Nobel Prize in Physics in 1902.

1897

Larmor's Identical Transformations for Orbiting Electrons

Joseph Larmor used identical transformations to describe orbiting electrons in 1897, which Lorentz was apparently unaware of. Larmor's equations were later found to be algebraically equivalent to those presented by Poincaré and Einstein in 1905.

1898

Appointed Honorary Member, London Mathematical Society

In 1898, he was appointed as an Honorary Member of the London Mathematical Society.

1899

Lorentz adds time dilation to his transformations

In 1899, Hendrik Lorentz incorporated time dilation into his transformations, which were later named the Lorentz transformations by Henri Poincaré in 1905. This addition was significant in the development of the theory of Special relativity.

1900

Hypothesis of Energy Elements

The hypothesis of energy elements was first introduced by Planck in 1900 and later expanded by Einstein and Nernst. It has provided new insights into various phenomena and has been acknowledged for its significance and productivity.

1901-02

Sichtbare und unsichtbare bewegungen Vorträge

In February and March 1901, H.A. Lorentz delivered lectures on visible and invisible movements at the invitation of the board of the Leiden department of the Maatschappij tot nut van't algemeen. The lectures were translated from Dutch to German by G. Siebert and included 40 printed illustrations.

1902-06-23

Hendrik Lorentz

Hendrik Lorentz was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for their discovery of the Zeeman effect. He made significant contributions to the theory of electromagnetism.

1903

Lorentz's Derivation of Formula for Blackbody Radiation

In 1903, Lorentz derived a formula for the energy distribution in blackbody radiation as part of his electron theory of metals, which contributed to the understanding of the place of electron theory in physics.

1904-12-20

Presentation on Electron Theory

H.A. Lorentz delivered a lecture on the results and problems of electron theory at the Elektrotechnischen Verein zu Berlin on December 20, 1904.

1905

Development of Special Theory of Relativity

Albert Einstein utilized the research of Hendrik Lorentz in developing his special theory of relativity. Lorentz's work, particularly the Lorentz transformations, played a significant role in Einstein's groundbreaking theory.

1906

Lorentz delivers lectures on relativistic electromagnetic theory in America

In 1906, Hendrik Lorentz traveled to America and gave a series of lectures on relativistic electromagnetic theory. These lectures were later published in 1909 under the title Theory of Electrons.

1908

Awarded Rumford Medal

In 1908, received the prestigious Rumford Medal from the Royal Society for outstanding contributions in the field of physics.

1909

Lorentz's Papers on Einstein's Principle of Relativity

Lorentz published a series of papers discussing 'Einstein's principle of relativity', affirmatively acknowledging Einstein's theory. These papers were released in 1909, 1910, and 1914, emphasizing Lorentz's support for Einstein's work.

1910

Relativiteitsbeginsel voor eenparige translaties

In 1910, Hendrik Antoon Lorentz gave lectures on the relativiteitsbeginsel voor eenparige translaties at the Rijks-Universiteit te Leiden. This concept is related to the theory of relativity and uniform translations.

1911

Chairmanship of the First Solvay Conference

In 1911, Hendrik Lorentz chaired the first Solvay Conference in Brussels, where the discussions focused on the compatibility of classical physics and quantum theory. Lorentz, although skeptical of quantum theory, aimed to reconcile it with classical physics.

1912-11

Les théories statistiques en thermodynamique

H.A. Lorentz gave lectures on statistical theories in thermodynamics at the Collège de France in November 1912, which were later transcribed by L. Dunoyer in 1913.

1913

Poincaré's essay on Lorentzian mechanics and quantum physics

In 1913, Poincaré wrote an essay discussing Lorentzian mechanics and quantum physics. He highlighted the contrast between the old mechanics of Lorentz and the emerging quantum mechanics, emphasizing key aspects of Lorentzian mechanics.

1916

Publication of statistical thermodynamic theories

In 1916, Lorentz published an account of statistical thermodynamic theories based on lectures delivered at the Collège de France in 1912.

1917

On Einstein's Theory of gravitation

In 1917, Lorentz wrote a paper discussing Einstein's theory of gravitation. The paper may have provided insights, critiques, or further developments related to Einstein's gravitational theory.

1918

Awarded Copley Medal

In 1918, honored with the Copley Medal by the Royal Society for remarkable achievements in the field of physics.

1919

Chairman of Committee for Zuyderzee Reclamation

In 1919, Lorentz was appointed as the Chairman of the Committee tasked with studying the movements of sea water during and after the reclamation of the Zuyderzee in the Netherlands, a significant hydraulic engineering project. His theoretical calculations were proven accurate and valuable for the science of hydraulics.

1920

Fellow of Royal Society of Edinburgh

In 1920, Hendrik Lorentz became a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

1923

Membership in International Committee of Intellectual Cooperation

In 1923, Lorentz was elected to the membership of the International Committee of Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations, a prestigious group of scholars. He later became the President of this Committee in 1925.

1924

Publication of 'Clerk Maxwell's Electromagnetic Theory'

In 1924, Lorentz authored 'Clerk Maxwell's Electromagnetic Theory', adding to his contributions in the field.

1926

Lorentz appointed chair of committee for Afsluitdijk flood control dam

Lorentz was asked by the Dutch government to chair a committee to calculate the effects of the proposed Afsluitdijk flood control dam on water levels in the Waddenzee. He invested a large portion of his time in the problem and proposed a numerical solution based on hydrodynamic equations of motion, which turned out to be remarkably accurate.

1928-02-04

Death of Hendrik Lorentz

Hendrik Lorentz passed away on February 4, 1928, at the age of 74. His legacy in the field of physics continues to inspire and influence future generations of scientists.

1928-02-10

Hendrik Lorentz Funeral

Hendrik Lorentz's funeral took place in Haarlem, Netherlands. The State telegraph and telephone services of Holland were suspended for three minutes as a tribute to Lorentz. The funeral was attended by colleagues and distinguished physicists from foreign countries.

1931

Lectures on Theoretical Physics (vol. I-III)

Lorentz's lectures on theoretical physics, spanning volumes I to III, were published in 1931. These lectures likely covered various topics in theoretical physics and may have been influential in the field.

1953

Gedachtnis-Austellung von H.A. Lorentz und H. Kamerlingh Onnes

In the summer of 1953, a memorial exhibition was held at the Rijksmuseum for H.A. Lorentz and H. Kamerlingh Onnes.

1957

H.A. Lorentz: Impressions of His Life and Work

Geertruida Luberta De Haas-Lorentz's account of H.A. Lorentz's life and work.

1983

American Physics in Transition

A history of conceptual change in the late nineteenth century in American physics.

1988-03

H.A. Lorentz: Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, the ether, and the general theory of relativity

In March 1988, A.J. Kox explored the work of H.A. Lorentz, specifically focusing on Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, the ether, and the general theory of relativity in the Archive for History of Exact Sciences.

1990-11

H. A. Lorentz's contributions to kinetic gas theory

In November 1990, A.J. Kox highlighted H.A. Lorentz's contributions to kinetic gas theory in the Annals of Science.

1996-03

H.A. Lorentz: Sketches of His Work

A.J. Kox's exploration of H.A. Lorentz's work on slow viscous flow and other areas in fluid mechanics.

2024-03-22

Last Updated Information on Hendrik Antoon Lorentz

The information on Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was last updated on March 22, 2024.

End of the Timeline

**Hendrik Lorentz**

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